“JESUS” at Sight and Sound Theater.

Terry and I went to see the production of “JESUS’” at the Sight and Sound Theater in Lancaster on Wednesday.  This is our first time at S&S and we were amazed.  Sight & Sound’s unique theater experience begins with a 2,000-seat auditorium, a 300-ft stage that surrounds the audience on three sides, state-of-the-art technology and live animals.  The animals we saw included live pigs, sheep, goats, and horses all running up the aisles.  The show was amazing and I recommend it to anyone.  Parking was well organized we had no problem coming or going.  Here is some info about the theater and the JESUS show.

OUR MISSIONOur purpose is to present the Gospel of Jesus Christ and sow the Word of God into the lives of customers, guests and fellow workers by visualizing and dramatizing the scriptures, through inspirational productions, encouraging others and seeking always to be dedicated and wise stewards of our God-given talents and resources.

TIMELESS STORY OF RELENTLESS LOVE While Jesus’ story may be familiar, his actions are unexpected. He befriends outcasts and heals the hurting. He challenges social norms and confronts hypocrisy. He sets sail with fishermen and reasons with religious scholars. And the lives he touches will never be the same. From the streets of Jerusalem to the raging Sea of Galilee, there’s no place—and no person—that his love can’t reach.

https://www.sight-sound.com/ticketing/shows/title?location=lancaster

Resources available at http://sixdaycreation.com

Christian Apologetics: Always Be Ready to Give an Answer! A Former Atheist’s Personal Christian Evangelism Plan. $8

ANSWERS For “The Hope That Is in You.  Direct, Simple Answers to the World’s 106 “Hard” Questions”  $9

Without 3 Miracles Darwin’s Dead!  Science Proves Atheistic Evolution is IMPOSSIBLE. $9

Christian Education: My Children’s Christian Education, What Should I Do?A Christian Educator’s Analysis and Advice. $8

Creative Historical Non-fiction (Family History): Liebert Annals in Deutschland.  Our Complete German History$7

Tales of a Teen Aristocrat, Pranksters, a Witch, Curses, Ghosts and a Jew. $7

Rosemarie, Kristallnacht Transformation.  $5

General Interest Fiction: Yellowstone’s Child.  $7

One Android, 399 lives. 59th Street Terrorist Attack Kills 399.Fictional attack.  $7

Other eBooks on Kindle: The Memory Tree.A Gospel Christmas Story.  $2.99

Helene at Mama Henney’s Boarding School for Girls.  $2.99

DNA Children’s Workshop Activity to Demonstrate the Superiority of Biblical Creation Over Atheistic Evolution. MEET TEAM AT (with Popsicle sticks)

The discovery of DNA as the means to transfer information to progeny is a show stopper for Atheistic Evolution.  Here is an activity from my children’s workshops to illustrate that information transfer requires intelligence.  This activity is one of the many in my new book: God’s Created Creatures Wreck Evolution.  A Teaching Guide for Biblical Creation. 

Learning Objective:1) demonstrate random processes do not generate information, and 2) the origin of information requires intelligence.

Method:Each team, usually 6-10 students at a table, will spell “MEET TEAM AT” using Popsicle sticks, simulating both the Evolution and the Creation models.

I selected this phrase because like DNA it contains four letters (M, E ,A ,T) and communicates information.  Evolutionists use blind random chance with no intelligence. Creationists use their minds and hands because God has both complete knowledge and ability.

Evolution Team:Blindfold one member of the team and then let them drop the sticks one at a time or in bunches to spell out “MEET TEAM AT” on the tabletop. You cannot use your senses to aim them; each drop must be random. You can’t touch or arrange them once they are dropped.

Creation Team:You can use your intelligence and work quickly. Place each stick on the table using your hands (ability) and your mind (knowledge) to make the letters to spell “MEET TEAM AT.”

Repeat:Reverse roles and let each team use the other model.

In conducting dozens of these workshops, I’ve never even had more than one letter formed, a “T.” I do get a lot of “X”s, but that’s not a useful letter. Here’s some student feedback.

  • “Mr. Liebert this evolution thing is never going to work.”
  • “Couldn’t we just peek a little to help Evolution along?”
  • “Why do people believe in Evolution?”
  • And the best from a twelve-year-old—”Do people really believe in Evolution? That’s stupid!”

Here, then, is one of the steps of faith for the Atheist. For evolution to work, information must arise from nothing without intelligence. An absurd belief!

Information Requires Intelligence: One of the laws of information science states that information only comes from an intelligent source and DNA is described as highly concentrated information. The more DNAis studied in real, living organisms, the more specific and complicated the coding is found to be.  We are just beginning to understand the coding and how that information is used to direct the construction of living organisms. A zygote, the fertilized egg in a woman’s body, contains all the data needed to construct a full-grown adult.

  • That one cell is a living human being! (This has many implications and I address it in “Always…)
  • Humans have twenty-three pairs of chromosomes filled with DNA.
  • In a human cell the molecule it is about 6 microns across.
  • One DNA molecule stretched out is more than six feet, two meters long.
  • The DNA molecule, double helix, contains the genetic code that is:
  • Billions of atoms arranged in unique order for each person.
  • Writing out this code would fill six hundred books of a thousand pages each.
  • All of which is contained on a pinpoint.
  • AND according to Evolution, it all happened by accident!

Resources available at http://sixdaycreation.com

Christian Apologetics: Always Be Ready to Give an Answer! A Former Atheist’s Personal Christian Evangelism Plan. $8

ANSWERS For “The Hope That Is in You.  Direct, Simple Answers to the World’s 106 “Hard” Questions”  $9

Without 3 Miracles Darwin’s Dead!  Science Proves Atheistic Evolution is IMPOSSIBLE. $9

Christian Education: My Children’s Christian Education, What Should I Do?A Christian Educator’s Analysis and Advice. $8

God’s Created Creatures Wreck Evolution.  A Teaching Guide for Biblical Creation.  $14 Full Color

Creative Historical Non-fiction (Family History): Liebert Annals in Deutschland.  Our Complete German History$7

Tales of a Teen Aristocrat, Pranksters, a Witch, Curses, Ghosts and a Jew. $7

Rosemarie, Kristallnacht Transformation.  $5

General Interest Fiction: Yellowstone’s Child.  $7

One Android, 399 lives. 59th Street Terrorist Attack Kills 399. Fiction.  $7

The Memory Tree.A Gospel Christmas Story.  $9

Other eBooks on Kindle:

Helene at Mama Henney’s Boarding School for Girls.  $2.99

The Curse of the Witch of Zahlendorf.  Der Fluch der Hexe von Zahlendorf. $2.99

Twitter name: @CreationCharlie              Charlie’s weekly blog, search charlieliebert.blog

Video answers http://www.sixdaycreation.com

Contact charlie@sixdaycreation.comor 336-337-4975 (call or text).

Charlie Liebert’s website http://sixdaycreation.com revised and updated.

My website http://sixdaycreation.com has been renewed and improved to include all the resources I’ve produced to help Christians gain confidence in their faith and mature into effective personal evangelists.  In my more than 30 years as an Apologist, I’ve videoed many answers to questions about religion, science and the Gospel.  On this site there are more than 60 answers linked tomy YouTube channel in nine categories: 1) 10 Common Questions, 2) Astronomy, 3) Bible Questions, 4) Creation & Evolution, 5) Creation Seminar (a complete seminar in 12 parts) 6) Dating & Fossils, 7) Dinosaurs, 8) Noah’s Flood and 9) Races & Genetics.

All four of my published Christian books are listed in two categories.  Since I’ve begun to publish with KDP (Kindle Direct Publishing), I’ve been able to reduce my book prices by an average of 40%.  ALL of my books now sell for $9.00 or less.  All are available on my website http://sixdaycreation.com

Christian Apologetics

Always Be Ready to Give an Answer!  A Former Atheist’s Personal Christian Evangelism Plan.  Christian, do the “hard” questions you’re asked stop you from being effective for Christ?  Here’s a strategy that will transform you into a fearless evangelist!  $8

ANSWERS For “The Hope That Is in You.  Direct, Simple Answers to the World’s “Hard”  Questions” 106 Questions Answered. $9

Without 3 Miracles Darwin’s Dead!  Science Proves Atheistic Evolution is IMPOSSIBLE. $9

Christian Education

My Children’s Christian Education, What Should I Do?  A Christian Educator’s Analysis & Advice. Shows the Biblical Mandate to educate Christian children and explains ALL the educational options available in the US today $8

Video of my Lakeside Testimony

Creative Historical Non-fiction (Family History)

Liebert Annals in Deutschland.  Our Complete German Historybegins in 1898 with my grandmother from Berlin attending school in Northern Italy.  Ends with my Aunt Rosemarie’s survival of the Holocaust.$7

Tales of a Teen Aristocrat, Pranksters, a Witch, Curses, Ghosts and a Jew. Composite of Liebert family history with the family-specific details removed thatare not of interest to the general public. Contains all three short stories:        “Helene…” “The Curse…” and “Rosemarie…”  $7

Rosemarie, Kristallnacht Transformation.  My twice Jewish aunt, with a Jewish father and a Jewish husband, survived the Holocaust in Germany 1937-1945 by becoming her Gentile cousin. This story is included in “Our Complete German History.” And “Tales…”  $5

General Interest Fiction

Yellowstone’s Child.  Kidnapped at 10 with complete amnesia she recovers her memory at 22 after she’s become a millionaire and successful TV star.  She asks: “Who am I? Sarah Johanson, Sally Graham, Sally Johnson or Detective Elaine Scott.”   NO! She answers “I’mYellowstone’s Child.”  Rated “G.”  Great story for teens.$7

One Android, 399 lives. 59th Street Terrorist Attack Kills 399.Fictional attack.  $7

Other eBooks on Kindle

The Memory Tree.A Gospel Christmas Story.  $2.99

Helene at Mama Henney’s Boarding School for Girls.  My grandmother’s adventures as a 16 to18-year-old at an all-girls school for aristocrats in 1900 northern Italy. $2.99

The Curse of the Witch of Zahlendorf.  Der Fluch der Hexe von Zahlendorf. A 17th-century German folk tale dramatically illustrated by events in 1922. $2.99

Twitter name: @CreationCharlie              Charlie’s weekly blog, search charlieliebert.blog

Video answers http://www.sixdaycreation.com

Contact charlie@sixdaycreation.comor 336-337-4975 (call or text)

Share the Gospel this Christmas by reading my short story “The Memory Tree” to your family. It’s on Kindle.

“The Memory Tree” is a short Christmas story written by Charlie Liebert.  Reading it to your family is an easy and effective way to share the gospel at Christmas dinner or when you tell stories around the tree. It can be read in about 15 minutes. Some readers have used the story as a script to tell the story as a skit or play.

Can a Christmas tree planted, more than 50 years ago, in memory of Ruth and Barry’s grandfather speak to their father, Harry?  Harry’s been bitter for years about the death of his wife Charlotte on Christmas Eve.  Harry’s memory went back to that afternoon 28 years before. Charlotte shouting; “Harry!” as the truck suddenly appeared out of the rain.  The sound of the crash was deafening.  Harry awoke, aware of being wet and some hands on his shoulder.  The awful pain in his back made everything seem fuzzy.  He heard someone say, “This one’s still alive, but the woman’s dead.”

His grandson Barry poked him, and he came back to the present.  Before he continued telling the story, he asked, in his mind: “How could a God that loves us let Charlotte die?”  He’d never gotten an answer he could accept.

He continued: “Why did one tree have to die for the other to live?” He asked the children, unsure himself of the answer.  All the bitterness of the years came back suddenly, and he felt tears well up in his eyes.

“That’s what Charlotte said, ‘He had to die to give us life,'” he almost shouted.  He understood that the tree had a message for him all along.  All these years he hadn’t seen it.  Jesus had to die so we could live.  We couldn’t sacrifice ourselves, we weren’t worthy, but He was worthy to pay our debt.  Now it was clear, Jesus had died to give Harry life.  “O Lord how could I have been so blind!!  I need you, Jesus,” he thought.

Author’s Note: Pause, if necessary to clarify the Gospel.[

Ten years later Harry lay on the bed overlooking the backyard.  The tree was now old like him and ready to die.  The last ten years had been kind to him, and he had many chances to share Jesus.  But now the end was almost here.  It looked like another winter storm.  In the darkening sky, the wind blew strong.  Just as Harry breathed out his last breath, the wind picked up and the memory tree cracked at the base and fell into the Slazer’s yard.

Richard Slazer was reading in John when he heard the tree fall.  “Verily, verily, I say unto you, except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abides alone; but if it dies, it brings forth much fruit.”  Richard got up from his chair and went out into the yard to look at the fallen tree.  As he looked at the base where it had cracked and broken, he noticed a tiny branch poking its head up through the soil next to the broken stump. Perhaps a new tree will grow in its place, he thought, as he hurried in to escape the coming storm.

Charlie is the author of three books and seven short stories published on Amazon, Kindle.

Three Books: 1) “Always Be Ready to Give an Answer!  A Former Atheist’s Personal Christian Evangelism Plan.”  2) ANSWERS For “The Hope That Is in You.  Direct, Simple Answers to the World’s “Hard” Questions” Both at http://yourchristiananswers.com  3) “Without 3 Miracles Darwin’s Dead!  Science Proves Atheistic Evolution is IMPOSSIBLE.”  Available at http://www.w3mdarwinsdead.com

Amazon/Kindle short stories written by Charlie Liebert: 1) The Memory Tree. A Christmas Story.  2) Helene at Mama Henney’s Boarding School for Girls.  3) Lost in Yellowstone: Sarah Johanson disappears without a trace.  4) Yellowstone’s Child: “Who am I? Sarah Johanson, Sally Graham, Sally Johnson or Detective Elaine Scott.”   NO! She’s Yellowstone’s Child.  5) One Android, 399 lives: 59th Street Terrorist Attack Kills 399. 6) Rosemarie, Kristallnacht Transformation. How my twice Jewish Aunt survived the Holocaust 7) The Curse of the Witch of Zahlendorf.  Der Fluch der Hexe von Zahlendorf.

Twitter name: @CreationCharlie                   Charlie’s weekly blog, search charlieliebert.blog

Video answers http://www.sixdaycreation.com

Contact charlie@sixdaycreation.com or 336-337-4975 (call or text).

The Christian’s Biblical Responsibility to Teach Their Children God’s Wisdom.

This week I begin a series that addresses Christian parent’s responsibility to educate their children.  I speak with some life experience, having two children and five grandchildren.  My wife Terry and I became Christians in 1977 when I was 35.  In 1995, I joined the Board of Caldwell (Classical, Christian, Community) Academy (CCCA) in Greensboro, NC, one year after its founding and served for three years.  During that time Caldwell moved to a permanent facility and we saw the student body more than double.  Leaving the board in 2001, I taught at CCCA for three years before beginning teaching at the Community College level where I still teach today.  You can see Caldwell CCC Academy today at http://www.caldwellacademy.org/about-us/

If God gave you children, then he also gives you responsibility for their instruction.  As a parent, one of your PRIMARY responsibilities is your children’s education. Before you can begin teaching your children, you must learn God’s wisdom yourself from the primary source, the Bible.  Since we are God’s creation we must understand the nature and character of God.  This gaining of wisdom is a cycle of study, learning and teaching.  It requires effort!  In Romans 12:1-2 we are told it happens by the renewing the mind, personal STUDY! Your work is to take your thinking and bring it from your sinful self to more and more knowledge of God.  This transformation impacts our behavior as we are changed more and more into the image of Christ.  By building a foundation of our spiritual depth we can begin to instruct our children.  In the Bible verses below, you will see it is our effort combined with faith in the Scriptures brings us greater wisdom.  We can only teach what we know and understand so, the more we grow the greater our ability to impart wisdom to our children.  Remember it’s not just what we teach it’s more how we live.  Our actions often speak louder than our words so we MUST let the truth transform us.  Do not say to your children: “Do what I say not what I do!”  Say to them:  ”Watch me and do what I do!”  A living example has far more influence than instruction alone.  Read these Bible verses carefully to see the importance of wisdom!

Proverbs 1:7 The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge; fools despise wisdom and instruction.

Psalm 119:66 Teach me good judgment and knowledge, for I believe in your commandments.

Proverbs 4:13 Keep hold of instruction; do not let go; guard her, for she is your life.

Proverbs 9:9 Instruct a wise man, and he will be still wiser; teach a righteous man, and he will increase in learning.

Ezra 7:10 For Ezra had set his heart to study the Law of the Lord, and to do it and to teach his statutes and rules in Israel.

Romans 12:2 Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewal of your mind, that by testing you may discern what is the will of God, what is good and acceptable and perfect.

2 Corinthians 10:5 We destroy arguments and every lofty opinion raised against the knowledge of God and take every thought captive to obey Christ,

James 1:5 If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God, who gives generously to all without reproach, and it will be given him.

Charlie is the author of “Always Be Ready to Give an Answer!  A Former Atheist’s Personal Christian Evangelism Plan.” which develops a personal evangelism strategy that gets to the Gospel every time you witness.  His second book ANSWERS For “The Hope That Is in You.  Direct, Simple Answers to the World’s “Hard” Questions” answers more than 100 questions skeptics use to try to stump Christians. Both at http://yourchristiananswers.com  Charlie’s third book, “Without 3 Miracles Darwin’s Dead!  Science Proves Atheistic Evolution is IMPOSSIBLE” challenges Evolution’s believability, because it flagrantly violates three scientific laws, the 1st and 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics and Biogenesis.   To break a scientific law, you need a miracle, and Atheistic Evolution cannot allow any.  Available at http://www.w3mdarwinsdead.com

Twitter name: @CreationCharlie              Charlie’s weekly blog, search charlieliebert.blog

Video answers http://www.sixdaycreation.com

Contact charlie@sixdaycreation.com or 336-337-4975 (call or text).

Yellowstone’s Child, my first novel is now available on Amazon Kindle.

front-coverback-cover    We deviate this week from my primary theme, Christian Apologetics, to introduce my first novel.   The theme of Yellowstone’s Child’s is personal identity, how one answers the question, “Who am I?” The story begins when a married couple, Sam and Gloria Graham, chicken farmers from Mississippi, loose their 10-year-old  daughter, Sally, to brain cancer. After her death, they plan to sell their Mississippi farm and to move to Nebraska. To help recover from Sally’s death; they take a short vacation in February at Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. At the same time, at Yellowstone, three cousins from the Johanson family reunion fall into a river partially fed by hot springs. Two get right out but the third, Sarah, hits her head and floats away on her back downstream. The Grahams rescue her and discover she has complete amnesia. They kidnap her and take back to Mississippi to replace their dead daughter. Park Rangers and Sarah’s family search the river in Yellowstone but do not recover her body. Sarah is eventually declared dead. In Mississippi, the Grahams inherit significant wealth, move to Nebraska, change their identities and move again to Ventura CA as Sam, Gloria, and Sally Johnson. Sarah, now Sally, still with complete amnesia, enters an all girls private school that specializes in preparing girls for careers in movies and TV. She starts in 6th grade at Ventura Private School for Girls and graduates seven years later. During each school year, 6th through 12th, another secret about her identity develops that must be kept from her by her parents. After graduating from VPSG, she earns a BA in Music, Theater, and Dance from Cal State. About to finish her Masters, she has an auto accident, bumps her head and her memory of her life before she was ten years old returns. She obtains a starring role in the TV series DETECTIVES LIVE as Detective Elaine Scott. She confronts her “parents”; they admit to kidnapping her, and she then begins to search for her real identity. She asks, “Who am I? Sarah, Sally, or Elaine. Johanson, Graham, Johnson, or Detective Scott.” She concludes, NO she’s Yellowstone’s Child.

If this story were a movie, it would be rated “G” and is suitable for teens. Readers complain that they weren’t able to put the story down once they got to Yellowstone National Park. There are two underlying messages in Yellowstone’s Child. First, the reader will recognize humankind’s imperfection. All my characters are real people and none of them are perfect or infallible. Second, as the plot unfolds, it shows that life is uncertain and often unpredictable. Since, as a Christian, I won’t use sex or violence to attract readers I opted for drama, plot reversals and “the story” within the story to keep reader interest. One of my first readers complained: “Yellowstone’s Child made me cry five times, twice for sadness, and three times for joy.”   It’s that kind of a story! It’ll make an excellent TV miniseries. It contains a timeline and a list of characters to help the reader follow the story.

Charlie is the author of “Always Be Ready to Give an Answer!” which develops an evangelism strategy that gets to the Gospel every time you witness. His second book ANSWERS For “The Hope That Is In You.” contains answers to more than 100 questions skeptics use to try to stump Christians. My third book, “Without 3 Miracles Darwin’s DEAD!” is currently in the final editing process and will be published later this year. http://yourchristiananswers.com

To get my weekly blog “like” my Facebook page at https://www.facebook.com/Charlie-Liebert-1603534356575541/?ref=aymt_homepage_panel

To get video, answers to questions go to http://www.sixdaycreation.com

Contact Charlie at Charlie@sixdaycreation.com or 336-337-4975 (call or text).

The Memory Tree. A Gospel Christmas Story that can be read to children in about 10 minutes.

The Memory Tree is a Gospel Christmas Story that can be read to children in about 10 minutes. It’s a great read to give to your family for Christmas. The Gospel is very clearly presented.

Can a Christmas tree planted in memory of Ruth and Barry’s grandfather speak to their father, Harry? Harry’s been bitter for years about the death of his wife Charlotte on Christmas Eve years before. He asks, “How could a God that loves us let Charlotte die?” He never got an answer he could accept until he told the story about the memory tree.

“Why did one have to die for the other to live?” He asked the children, unsure himself of the answer. All the bitterness of all the years seemed to come back suddenly, and he began to feel tears well up in his eyes.

“That’s what Charlotte said, ‘He had to die to give us life,'” he almost shouted. He now understood that the tree had a message for him all along. All these years he hadn’t seen it. Jesus had to die so we could live. We couldn’t sacrifice ourselves; we weren’t worthy, but He was. Now it was all clear; Jesus had died to give him life. “O Lord how could I have been so blind!! I need you, Jesus,” he thought.

Richard Slazer was reading in John when he heard the tree fall. “Verily, verily, I say unto you, except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abides alone; but if it dies, it brings forth much fruit.” He got up from his chair and went out into the yard to look at the fallen tree. As he looked at the base where it had cracked and broken. He noticed a tiny branch poking it’s head up through the soil right next to the severed stump. Perhaps a new tree will grow in its place, he thought, as he hurried in to escape the coming storm.

This story has been produced by the author as a booklet and is now available on Amazon Kindle. https://www.amazon.es/Memory-Tree-Christmas-Charlie-Liebert-ebook/dp/B00WTNWAMC

Other short stories written by Charlie Liebert available On Amazon are

Helene at Mama Henney’s Boarding School for Girls. A story of my Grandmother, the child of French Aristocrats living in Germany in 1900. She is sent to an exclusive school in Northern Italy to help her recovery from Tuberculosis. Her adventures are both dramatic and exciting. https://www.amazon.com/Helene-Henneys-Boarding-School-Girls-ebook/dp/B00WTMVX94/ref=pd_ybh_a_1?_encoding=UTF8&psc=1&refRID=VWD204YFZ3BV7ZJ17QV6

Lost in Yellowstone: Sarah Johanson disappears without a trace. This short story is the lead-in to the full-length novel “Yellowstone’s Child.” This story is complete in itself, telling how Sarah Johanson becomes Sally Graham.

Yellowstone’s Child: What’s her name? Sarah or Sally, Johanson or Graham or Johnson or Detective Elaine Scott? NO! It’s Yellowstone’s Child.

One Android, 399 lives: 59th Street Terrorist Attack Kills 399 The events of 9/11/2001 changed our perception of US vulnerability to terrorist attacks. The attack in San Bernardino that killed 14 and injured 22 is another example to heighten our alertness. These attacks raise our awareness of every person’s vulnerability to sudden unexpected death. This story tells of an attack planned and executed by Islamic terrorists in New York using an airplane much like 9/11.

Charlie is author two books in the Christian Genre. “Always Be Ready to Give an Answer!” develops an evangelism strategy that gets to the Gospel every time you witness. His second book ANSWERS For “The Hope That Is In You.” contains answers to more than 100 questions skeptics use to try to stump Christians. The third book, “Without 3 Miracles Darwin’s DEAD!” is currently in the final editing process and will be published in Q1 2017. http://yourchristiananswers.com

To get my weekly blog “like” my Facebook page at https://www.facebook.com/Charlie-Liebert-1603534356575541/?ref=aymt_homepage_panel

To get video, answers to questions go to http://www.sixdaycreation.com

Contact Charlie at Charlie@sixdaycreation.com or 336-337-4975 (call or text).